Cellar with their hands: step by step guide

Cellar - a mandatory extension to the cottage or a private house near. In this room all year round is held optimum temperature for the conservation of vegetables, fruit, canned and blanks. Build a cellar it is possible independently. To do this, you must assess the condition of soil, determine the best type of construction, materials, and choose to stick to the chosen technology.

  1. to the arrangement of the cellar Requirements
  2. Selecting the optimum design and material
  3. How to make the cellar with their hands: recessed design
    • Assessment of the terrain and ground conditions
    • Materials and tools
    • preparation of the excavation
    • subfloor arrangement
    • Construction and waterproofing of walls
    • overlapping construction
    • Ventilation systems and the supply of electricity
    • The interior of the cellar
  4. Ground cellar with their hands: step by step guide

to the arrangement of the cellar Requirements

The optimal place for the conservation of harvested crop grown and will cellar. In this room maintained natural conditions and temperatures of about + 4 ° C. Favorable microclimate is needed to save the presentation, and taste characteristics of fruit and vegetables.

Some confuse the cellar and basement. However, this is a completely different structure. The cellar is located in the basement of the building. Cellar settling separately - apart on the plot. The design is inconspicuous, or vice versa, appears striking element of landscape design.

Practical use of the vegetable storage is possible under certain conditions:

  • the presence of low temperature - cellar built under the earth, or settling down in the basement which is in contact with the outer wall of the house;
  • dimming - in the cellar design excluded the window;
  • continuous filling clean and fresh air, and due to the natural ventilation;
  • humidity - about 80-90%.

Selecting the optimum design and material

Regardless of the depth of the following types cellars.

Ground structure rises above the surface, the depth of the structure - no more than one meter. In fact it is a small bin for vegetables. Storage shed can be erected at any place, even in small depressions.

The construction of "vegetable garden" a warehouse - the solution for waterlogged areas and low-lying areas. A distinctive feature of the ground cellar - no overlap. Typically, the settling gable roof boards. Because of this time and the final price of the construction of vegetable storage are reduced. An additional advantage - the ease of construction of the cellar with their hands.

A larger ground cellar - looks like a small house building. slab is poured on top of the earth, covering the floor with a thick layer. Unprotected left end side of the door. Over the filling planted lawn grass that adorns the territory and holding back soil from obsypaniya.

Poluzaglublenny cellar - the most demanded type of construction. The design looks like a ground structure, but part of the room (about 1.5 m) is located under the earth. The entrance door in the bins located below the surface of the soil, so it is necessary to provide for drainage of melt system / rainwater. Door design is thoroughly insulated.

Recessed cellar is well suited for compact areas. However, its construction is possible only at low or ground water in the regeneration thorough waterproofing and drainage. The input can be covered with insulating removable cover or make a special pogrebitsey - a small house with a hatch in the ceiling. Pogrebitsa can be used as a storeroom to house and vegetable garden, garden tools, various household items or vegetables.

cellar walls erected from different materials: stone, brick, concrete, asbestos-cement sheets. Construction is not desirable to build from a metal because it is difficult to achieve suitable temperature.

When using the ground as a base material for the walls is sheathed inside bin timber. Slats of wood should be well dried, sanded, treat with antiseptic and re-dried.

Making the cellar with their own hands: video-on material selection

How to make the cellar with their hands: recessed design

Assessment of the terrain and ground conditions

Best location cellars - hill podgorok or hill. Groundwater in such cases are far from the surface of the earth. When placed on a hill reduces ingress of rainwater. In addition, you get to save on the waterproofing materials.

Many people prefer to build a cellar next to the apartment house to quickly reach and take the right products in the cold season, rain, etc.

Before the start of construction it is necessary to know the type of soil and the possibility of building surface / poluzaglublennogo vegetable store. To do this, a small test:

  1. On-site construction of the bins to put a piece of natural wool, and on top - a raw egg.
  2. Cover "construction" of banks and leave on overnight.
  3. Assess the outcome of the experiment:
    • if the wool has a dew, the ground water located nearby;
    • if the egg and coat dry - the occurrence of deep water and you can safely get to work.

Before you build a cellar with their hands, it is advisable to assess the type of soil:

  1. Peat - the best type for the embankment. This soil will minimize spoilage, which is especially relevant for storage of root crops.
  2. Quicksand - puchnisty soil that is not suitable for the construction of an "internal" cellar. This soil contains loam, sand and loam. To be able to build a vegetable storage, you have to replace the soil and add sand.
  3. Sandy soil is well suited for arranging base. This natural material is often added to reduce puchnistosti and reduce the moisture content.

Materials and tools

Everything for cellars in the country with their own hands will be needed:

  • crushed stone and gravel;
  • sand rack;
  • clay solution;
  • roofing felt rolls;
  • brick;
  • cement;
  • board for arranging overlapping frame;
  • concrete grade 100;
  • molten bitumen;
  • grating for reinforcement.

Of the instruments should be prepared:

  • mixer;
  • hand rammer;
  • shovel;
  • screws, screwdriver, nails, hammers;
  • welding machine;
  • grinders;
  • primer;
  • brush;
  • hacksaw.

preparation of the excavation

Construction recessed storage starts with digging the pit. Work is carried out in the following sequence:

  1. The plot is clear of stones, sticks and vegetation.
  2. Apply layout and dig a hole. Traditional cellar dimensions: length / width - 2.5 meters, depth - 2.3 m for digging the excavation is better to use the services of the excavator..
  3. The walls of the pit to align shovel scraping the surplus land and giving it a smooth surface.
  4. The depth of excavation depends on the type of equip cellar. When determining this value it is necessary to consider that the space will partially occupy the manhole or entrance, shelving ladder. In view of this, it is necessary to pull out the pit with a certain margin.
  5. Compacted bottom of the pit, pour into a pit sand and gravel. The thickness of cushion sand - 20 cm, a gravel - 10 cm.

subfloor arrangement

Screed floor to perform better with clay mortar. For its preparation it is necessary to combine the clay and quartz sand in the ratio 90% / 10%. Dilute with water, bringing to a thick cream. Solution prepared gravel fill the thickness of 3-4 cm.

.yap-title-block__text, .yap-title {
font-size: 17px important;!
}
# Yap-Ya_sync_2-vertical .yap-title-block__text {
font-size: 17px important;!
}

To improve strength characteristics of the base, and provide better insulation against the penetration of groundwater bin recommended further reinforce concrete. Procedure:

  1. Prepare the weight of the rack sand and concrete in a ratio of 5: 1 respectively.
  2. Clay base after drying pour concrete solution 5 cm thick.
  3. Smooth the surface and leave to pour.

Construction and waterproofing of walls

The technology of construction of the brick walls is as follows:

  1. Build the foundation for masonry brick width 1, height - about 15 cm.
  2. Leave to dry foundation.
  3. Laying is performed on the angle of the wall, which provides a doorway.
  4. The bricks are placed in a checkerboard pattern.
  5. Laying bricks on it is necessary to tap the handle trowel - it will help get rid of the excess solution and to improve the adhesion of materials.
  6. After the erection of each series it is necessary to check the evenness of the building level.
  7. The working solution is prepared from sand and cement in a ratio of 4: 1 respectively.
  8. Performed in parallel with a clutch fill gaps and spaces between a brick wall and earthen clay solution. This technology provides additional waterproofing vegetable store.
  9. After the erection of the wall construction on leave 1 week before the solidification of the solution.

brick walls are in need of carrying out waterproofing. For this purpose, normally used gidrostekloizol, roller or bitumen mastic sealants. The sequence of execution of insulation works:

  1. Treat all surfaces water-repellent composition.
  2. On the wall to attach roofing sheets - fixing material is performed by a heated bitumen mastic. To ensure high-quality insulation will need 2-3 coats.
  3. The walls are plaster with cement.

overlapping construction

Construction of floors - responsible action. Reference constructs must withstand heavy loads. Often overlap is made of a solid block made of concrete and the reinforcing cage. It is important that the cellar roof area greater than the size of the room, as the walls will act as bearing supports.

The algorithm performance:

  1. Set backups, which subsequently will build wooden formwork.
  2. Formwork before pouring should be carefully sealed, the solution does not flow out through the gap.
  3. After preparation of the formwork to make the frame of a concrete slab reinforcement. the arrangement pitch of reinforcing bars - about 25 cm, frame height - up to 30 cm.
  4. When a large area of ​​the cellar is recommended that you double-plate reinforcement.
  5. reinforcement mesh should extend beyond the walls of the cellar at 5-10 cm from all sides.
  6. The resulting frame uniformly fill concrete mortar.

After pouring the slabs have to wait 3-4 weeks. Overlapping fully harden and take final form.

Ventilation systems and the supply of electricity

Good air circulation - an important condition for the safety of the products that are in the cellar. Lack of proper ventilation will lead to rotting vegetables, and too rapid circulation of the air flow - to dried out roots.

The technical room is preferable to provide natural ventilation - it is less costly, and its proper organization will provide sufficient air. To implement the need to equip supply and exhaust air duct. Exhaust element located at the top near the ceiling, a supply opening - on the opposite wall at a distance of two feet from the floor.

The procedure for creating a natural ventilation in the cellar with their hands:

  1. Select duct per 1 sq. m square bins - 26 sq. cm tube.
  2. Mounting pipe is performed in one corner, and the lower end should be placed near the ceiling. Duct through the whole room, the roof, overlooking the roof system on two feet.
  3. To the pipeline are not going to condensation, it is necessary to hold the insulation chimney on a sandwich. One tube is mounted to the other and the space between them is filled with mineral wool.
  4. The open end of the air tube is located at a distance of 50 cm from the lower floor level. The exhaust duct penetrates the overlapping, resulting in 80 cm above the base.
  5. Outside the pipe hole cover grid.
  6. On the tube is desirable to put the valve regulating air flow.

cellar electrification is performed using a copper cable with a double or triple insulation.

The interior design of the cellar

Upon completion of installation work can begin landscaping cellar. Several design options:

  • make the wall shelves with roomy shelves;
  • Canopies, metal shelves;
  • put prefabricated racks.

Important! All designs of the wood should be covered with anti insect and protective impregnation against moisture.

Ground cellar with their hands: step by step guide

At the cottage can be equipped with a simple cellar with their hands at a high level of groundwater. Inside bins ability to retain the temperature 2-3 ° C. Let us examine an example of construction of a warehouse type vegetable storage having the dimensions:

  • height in design center - 2 m;
  • width - 3.3 m, length - 3 m;
  • passage width - 0.6 meters.

The sequence of works:

  1. The logs resting on the ground, coat with hot bituminous mastic.
  2. Slab made of boards, and batten elements - of chiselled croaker, lagging, glinosolomy, pine scrap with sawmill.
  3. Roof overhangs should be based on the ground. Such a setup provides the cold time of the year additional insulation in the form of snow drifts. The result is a structure like a tent.
  4. On the one hand sutured storage shed two rows of planks, between which insulation is laid. At the other end of the insulated door is located.
  5. On the outer part of Lobazov around the perimeter of the dig drainage trench prevents natural waters.
  6. Near the ridge to make the hood - a wooden box with adjusting plate.

The construction of the cellar with their own hands: video