Forging a knife with his hands

Today, even with such a large range of different fine quality knives from reputable manufacturers, hand-forged knives are still very popular. This is not surprising, as these knives have a special power and appeal. And if he blade is made of stainless steel and with knowledge of the matter, such a knife is invaluable. Of the various ways autographic manufacturing of a knife is the most labor-intensive forged knife with his hands. It should be noted that the blade forging allows you to create the most durable and high-quality blade that will last for decades and still retains its quality. Forging blade with your hands - it is requiring the master of high-level skills of possession of an instrument, knowledge of metals and their properties. For those who have decided to forge a knife for the first time, the recommendations described below will help make your first blade.

  1. How to choose a steel knife
  2. Tool for forging a knife
  3. knife design
  4. Forging a knife from the drill
  5. Forging a knife out of the bearing
  6. Forging a knife from the spring
  7. Forging a knife from a file
  8. Forging a knife from the cable
  9. Tempering the blade and leave

How to choose a steel knife

Steel Knife

High-quality home-made knife distinguishes the correct selection of steel for him, this will depend on cutting and strength characteristics of the knife. To choose the right steel, it is necessary to know and understand what properties has itself become. Forging a knife with your hands need to focus on five major steel properties - wear resistance, hardness, toughness, strength, red hardness.

Hardness - This property of steel, indicating its ability to resist the penetration of her other harder material. Simply put, the solid steel is better resists deformation. The indicator of the hardness is measured on a scale of Rockwell and has a rate of 20 to 67 HRC.

Resistance to wear - wear resistance of the material during operation. This property depends on the hardness of the steel itself.

Strength It indicates the ability to maintain its integrity under the influence of various external forces. Check flexural strength can or bounce.

Plastic - of the steel absorb and dissipate kinetic energy during impact and deformation.

red hardness - a measure which is responsible for the stability of steel to the temperatures and the preservation of its original characteristics when heated. On how steel resistant to heat treatment depends minimum target temperature at which it can be forged. The most red hardness steels are solid brand, operating temperature for the forging are more than 900 ° C. It should be noted that the melting point of steel is 1450 - 1520 ° C.

All these properties are interconnected and the predominance of one of them leads to a deterioration of another. Thus a particular property of the steel depends on its content of various alloying elements and additives, such as silicon, carbon, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum.

alloying elements

The presence of certain alloying elements and their use in the manufacture of a proportional steel, knowledge of the properties which give the alloying elements and additives allowed to create steel for certain purposes and needs. These steels each have a marking. At the same time domestic and foreign steel grades are designated differently. For convenience, the brand began to Set the basic structure of one or more alloying elements. For example, the mark indicates U9 steel carbon content in tenths of a percent. Analogue steel "U" marks are steel 10hh, where "xx" - is the carbon content. And the lower the value, the less its content. Or such as a steel H12MF it indicates a high content of chromium and molybdenum, which means vysokoprochnostnyh properties and stainless steel.

Steel composition H12MF

For domestic brands, which are often used in forging knives at home, are all marked by steel U7 before U16, ShKh15, 65G, R6M5, H12MF. Because foreign counterparts can be identified Steel O-1, 1095, 52100, M-2, A-2, 440C, AUS, ATS-34, D-2. Each of the above brands used in the manufacture of knives, various tools and spare parts. For example, a grade of steel R6M5, V7, V13, 65G used for the production of drills, probes, cables, springs, bearings, files. Therefore, from these objects craftsmen make hand-forged knives.

Of course, you can find other products of a particular steel. For this will be enough to read the full description of the brand of steel and its application in the Database of Steel and Alloys, and then use the product out of it to forge a knife.

Tool for forging a knife

Tool for forging a knife

Forging knives require some blacksmith tools, which can be purchased in the store. But you can use non-professional tool:

  • Hammer for 3 - 4 kg, and hammer lower weight to 1 kg;
  • kuznecheskie tongs or pliers usual, but without insulation on the handles and adjustable wrench;
  • clutches;
  • anvil or her self-made analogue of the I-beam;
  • Bulgarian and welding machine;
  • grinder;
  • bake.

Homemade forge

If the conventional instrument is more or less clear, on the furnace necessary to make some clarifications. The thing is that in the usual locus is difficult to get the temperature over 900 ° C. And bask in the blank there is an eternity. Therefore it is necessary to slightly improve focus. If you have not previously engaged in at least metal hardening, you have to make from scratch a small furnace from heavy metal. Then attach thereto tube through which air will be supplied by a fan or the old cleaner. Such simple manner can obtain a sufficiently reliable crucible to bring the preforms to a temperature of 900 - 1200 ° C. The fuel is ordinary charcoal, preferably one which gives as much heat and burn longer.

knife design

Before proceeding to the actual work, you must make sketch of the knife.

In fact, the knife fairly simple object, consisting of a blade and a handle. But now, each of these elements is a set of components. On demonstrating knife design photo you can see all the elements of a knife and what they are called.

knife design

Also, you need to know about some of the basic profiles of the blades to make the most appropriate design. The photo below shows the profiles of the blades.

profile blade

By selecting the most suitable for your profile, can safely be taken for the creation of a sketch. Of course, skilled craftsmen manage without sketches, but for a beginner it is still important to make a sketch and keep it before our eyes in the process of forging.

Forging a knife from the drill

Drills have received a lot of popularity due to the forging of knives used in these alloy steel R6M5, which is durable, easy sharpening and durability.

forging knife Drills

When you select a drill for forging note one important point. Large drills consist of a working part of the spiral shank R6M5 and normal steel. Small drills are usually completely out R6M5. When forging the drill blade from a large need to immediately determine where some steel and wherein the boundary between them. This can be done simply, just a little drill to pierce the entire length. Where ordinary steel, sparks will be high and the yellow-orange tint. And here is where the alloy steel, the sheaf will be sparse and closer to the reddish tinge. procedure is necessary as described above, in order to determine where the blade of the knife will begin, and where the shank. When finished with this, we go to the very forging.

at first kindle the fire in the furnace, connect the blower and are waiting for the coals flare up quite strongly, then We put the drill into the crucible. But we do it with a pair of pliers, and so that the shank of mostly stayed out of the fire.

Important! Carrying out a knife forging the first time, you can not immediately determine when the metal warmed to the desired temperature. The result is that you can not mess up one drill. So before you take on the forging of the drill can be a little practice with heating and hammering metal on a regular fixture. It is necessary to remember, what color was the metal and when he forged the most softly. It is also worth remembering that in the sunlight even heated to 1100 ° C, the metal will darken.

Promotion drill forging blade of drill

As soon as drill heats up to the required temperature, and it is 1000 ° C, it immediately necessary remove from the crucible, and to clamp the shank in the bottom grip. After that, take the wrench, clamp them to the top of the drill and make a circular motion, straightening coil. Do everything necessary to quickly, so that the metal did not have time to cool down, otherwise the risk to break the drill. If you did not do it at a time, do not worry. Just re-Haskalah drill and repeat the procedure. As a result, should get a relatively flat strip of metal.

Forging drill - reeling to a suitable thickness

The next step is drill forging and Unrolling metal to an acceptable thickness. It's all quite simple. Red-hot metal to the required temperature, take a heavy hammer and start strong but uniform blows dub metal and give it a smooth shape. As a result, it should turn the metal strip thickness of about 4 - 5 mm.

Important! When metal forging must continuously monitor the color of the preform. As soon as she began to dim, acquiring cherry color, it immediately returns to the hearth. It is better to once again heat the metal than to break it under the hammer blow.

Forging knife edge

Further forged knife edge. It's all a bit more complicated. The fact that it is necessary to give zaokruglennuyu shape while maintaining the desired thickness of the blade. All the work is practically jeweler and require a certain dexterity. Forging is performed so as to gradually zaokruglivaya the edge, a little delayed by the length of the blade. Strokes should be strong, but neat. In the novice can not turn on the first try, but a little practice will fix everything.

Forging knife cutting edge

The next step is forging the knife cutting edge. This is an important and difficult stage. This will require a lighter hammer and preferably with zaokruglennym striker. Since the middle of the blade, gradually shift the metal down to the cutting edge. We tried to make a cutting edge as thin as possible. Thus it is necessary that the blade itself was straightforward and smooth. Strikes were very carefully and try to make just as much effort as it takes for a small deformation of the red-hot metal. Remember color preform and send it back to the furnace as needed.

Forging blade shank

Once able to forge the blade and the blade, proceed to peening shank. The works themselves will be much easier than in border regions the forging of the blade. Initially glows round shank drill bit, and then roll out its strong hammer blows. Depending on the sketch tail may be either narrow or wide. There are already as you like to make a pen knife. Someone makes a simple overlays, and someone makes a dial knob.

knife grinding

Upon completion of the forging give metal gradually cool and then proceed to the grinding. In the grinding machine remove extra metal layers and irregularities, making knife perfectly smooth and shiny. When grinding can take up to 2 mm thickness, and the knife will be much lighter and thinner. Also, at this stage, you can sharpen the knife. Finally perform a knife hardened. For information on how this is done, it will be written below.

Forging a knife from the drill video review:

Forging a knife out of the bearing

Another popular material for forging a knife bearing, namely its inner or outer rim. The inner even preferable. All works on the knife forging of bearing almost identical to the forging of the drill. With some exceptions.

Forging a knife out of the bearing

Firstly, the blank of the rim bearing cut using grinder. The length of trying to take stock, and so on the knife enough and 1 - 2 cm left. Secondly, at the initial stage of forging die cut blank to be welded to reinforcement rods. And in this way and glowing forge. Thirdly, if in the case of a drill blank rolled from round to flat, then the holder of the bearing it is necessary to simply align. A further action on forging of the blade and shank are completely similar. The only thing worth noting - from the bearing still more convenient to do knife handles overhead.

Forging a knife out of the bearing video review:

Forging a knife from the spring

In search of a suitable steel for high-quality knives, many used springs. The metal parts of the car is characterized by high elasticity and durability, making it an excellent model for hand-forged knives. In fairness, it should be noted that the blade of the leaf spring can be made by cutting out and the usual profile of a knife with a further sharpening and hardening. Yet, the knife was really reliable, it is best forged, especially since the spring thickness is quite large, and it should be reduced to a good knife.

Forging a knife from the spring

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Forging of the blade springs begin with stripping grinder rust and marking plate. It will take only a small portion of the springs, so mark it, cut off using a grinder. Further we weld the workpiece to the fixture and it glows. Then gradually prokovyvaem, bringing it to the required thickness. Forged edge and a cutting edge, as is done, for the example described above the blade forging of the drill. Having achieved the desired, subject the knife to cool gradually, and then grind and sharpen it.

Forging a knife from the spring video review:

Forging a knife from a file

Wear-resistant and durable steel can be found in various plumbing tools and file a glaring example. Manufacturing blades of a file sufficiently popular activity. The more so because the blades are obtained extremely durable with fine cutting edge. But forging a knife from a file has its own characteristics.

Knife from a file

First of all, you need to clear the file from cuts and possible rust. You can do this by using grinders. Next, cut the workpiece from a file required length if necessary. Then welds it to the fitting piece and puts in the furnace. Incandescent preform to a desired temperature, proceed to the preform rolling out to us necessary thickness. Then make the island and a cutting edge. Shank knife from a file is best done under the invoice handle.

Forging a knife from a file video review:

Forging a knife from the cable

Knife Making of steel cable is quite rare. Since in contrast to all the preforms described above, the cable is disconnected wire fibers and forge them is difficult. Besides steel cable has no such high characteristics as steel drill or a file. In the majority of cable knives hammer due to their unusual pattern on wedge resembling Damascus steel. In order to make such a knife, you need to make a bit more effort than conventional bar steel for forging.

Knife of the cable

Forging a knife from the cable begins, as usual forging. That's just have a few little secrets. Firstly, it concerns the shank. Many artists make shank knife from the cable in the form of ready-made handles. It looks very unusual and beautiful. And then there are two approaches in the manufacture of arms. Take a thick rope, and then cook it the end, making a monolithic piece. Or to make a handle in the shape of a loop, and the end of the forged blade. Second, the forging of a cable - a complicated matter because of the scattered wires that make up the cable. To make a knife, require them to cook together. And it's an art, and expect that the knife out of the cable obtained from the first time, it is not necessary. Welding can be performed in two ways. First - boil electric welding along the major grooves. The second - to perform kuznecheskuyu welding. The second option is more difficult and at the same time is preferable.

borax

So, choosing a way to create a handle to begin forging a knife. For this raskalivaem cable to bright red. Then take it out and sprinkle with brown. Then again sent into the crucible. So uncomplicated way you prepare to kuznecheskoy welding. borax It represents a tetraboric acid salt, and is applied craftsmen for welding of the individual layers of steel. In fact it is a flux which facilitates the melting process and prevents the molten metal from oxygen ingress and removes metal oxides. Borax can be found in the public domain without any problems.

After the treated wire brown on all sides and is heated from 900 to 1200 ° C or more, it is taken out from the crucible and begin prokovyvat. Strikes inflict a heavy hammer, but at the same time try to keep the fiber cable together. cable forging the complexity in it. But with practice you can achieve acceptable results. In the end, the cable can be glowing and prokovyvat many times. But each time, heating it in the furnace, sprinkle with brown rope. The result is a solid piece of steel, consisting of many layers, almost like Damascus steel. After that, there is only required to forge the blade shape. On showing forging knives videos have repeatedly been shown how is reeling out of the blade, a cutting edge and tip.

Tempering the blade and leave

As previously mentioned, hardening of the knife - this is one of the most important stages of its production. After all, on how it has been done correctly, it depends on the performance of the blade. Self hardening process is performed after the knife has cooled down and was ground using a grinder.

tempering the blade

tempering the blade It begins with its heat from light red to orange. Then the knife is lowered into the water or oil. In this case, water is added 2 - 3 tablespoons of salt to 1 liter, and the water temperature should be 18 - 25 ° C, oils 25 - 30 ° C. Tempering is carried out fairly quickly and that all went well after quenching the blade must be released. Hardening steel itself takes place in a temperature range of from 750 to 550 ° C. Currently hardening can feel even when the steel starts to "shake and groan" in the liquid. Once the process is finished, you need to get the blade and let it cool naturally.

blade vacation It is performed after hardening. The process itself involves a weakening of internal tension steel, which makes it more flexible and resistant to various types of loads. Before a holiday, the blade must be cleaned from the possible scale and then reheated. But during the tempering temperature is significantly less. knife itself need to have to keep the flame and watch him. Once the entire surface is covered with a yellow-orange film, remove the knife from the fire and give it to cool naturally.

Sometimes the quenching and tempering are manufactured using water or oil, and sometimes through the oil into the water. This hardening is very fast. First, the blade is lowered into the oil for 2 - 3 seconds and then in water. With this approach, the risk of making wrong quenching is minimal.

Forging a knife with his hands just seems like a simple task. In addition it will have quite a lot of waving a sledge hammer, so more and no experience in the matter of metal forging the first time may not be able to forge a knife. Therefore, you first need to get the hand and a little practice, and then proceed to the blade forging.