Wiring harness with your hands: the circuit before mounting

Another 15 - 20 years ago, the load on the grid were relatively small, but today the availability of a large number of household appliances provoked a rise in load times. Old wires are not always able to withstand heavy load and there is a need to replace them eventually. Laying electrical wiring in a home or an apartment - it is requiring the master certain skills and knowledge. First of all, it concerns the knowledge of the rules on wiring harness, the ability to read and create wiring diagrams, as well as on electrical skills. Of course, to do electrical wiring your own hands can be, but it is necessary to adhere to the rules set out below and recommendations.

  1. Rules wiring harness
  2. Design and circuit wiring harness
  3. wiring

    • Marking and preparation of raceways
    • Installation of open wiring
    • Installation of hidden wiring

Rules wiring harness

All construction activity and building materials is strictly regulated by a set of rules and requirements - SNIP and GOST. As for the wiring and the whole assembly that is connected to electricity, you should pay attention to the rules of electrical devices (abbreviated PUE). This document prescribes how and what to do when working with electrical equipment. And if we want to lay the wiring, then we need to study it, especially the part that relates to the installation and selection of electrical equipment. Here are the basic rules to be followed when installing the electrical wiring in a home or apartment:

  • the key elements of the wiring such as distribution boxes, meters, sockets and switches should be easily accessible;
  • setting switches is performed at a height of 60 - 150 cm from the floor. Sami switches are located in places where the open door does not prevent access to them. This means that if the door opens to the right, the switch is on the left side and vice versa. The wire is routed to switches downwards;
  • outlet is recommended to install at the height of 50 - 80 cm from the floor. This approach dictated by safety during sinking. Also outlet placed at a distance of 50cm from the gas and electric stoves, as well as radiators, pipes and other grounded objects. The wire is routed to an outlet from the bottom up;
  • the number of outlets in the room must comply with 1 pc. 6 m2. The kitchen is no exception. It established a number of outlets as necessary to connect home appliances. Installation of sockets in the toilet is prohibited. For sockets in the bathroom beyond settling a separate transformer;
  • Wiring inside or outside of the walls is performed only vertically or horizontally, and place gaskets shown on the wiring plane;
  • the wires are laid at a certain distance from the pipes, floors and other things. For the required horizontal distance of 5 - 10 cm from the beams overlap and eaves and 15 cm from the ceiling. Floor-height is 15 - 20 cm vertical wires are placed at a distance of 10 cm from the edge of the opening of the door or window.. The distance from the gas pipe should be at least 40 cm;
  • when laying the external or concealed wiring is necessary to make sure that it does not touch the metal parts of building structures;
  • when laying several parallel wires extending the distance between them should be at least 3 mm, or each conductor must be tucked away in a protective box or corrugation;
  • Wiring and connection wires running inside the special distribution boxes. the junction carefully insulated. The compound of copper and aluminum wire between a strictly prohibited;
  • ground and neutral wires are fixed to the instrument by bolting.

Design and circuit wiring harness

Work on wiring, starting with the creation of the project and the wiring diagram. This document is the basis for a future home wiring. Create a project and the scheme sufficiently serious matter and it is better to entrust experienced professionals. The reason is simple - it affects the security of living in a house or apartment. Services on the creation of the project will cost a certain amount, but it's worth it.

The project wiring diagram

Those who are used to doing everything with their own hands, have, adhering to the above rules, as well as learning the basics of electrical engineering, to make their own drawings and calculations on the load on the network. Any difficulties with that, especially if there is at least some understanding of what an electric current, and the consequences of careless handling. The first thing you need is a legend. They are shown in the photo below:

Schematic symbols appliances

Using them, do a drawing of apartment and planned lighting point, the installation location of switches and sockets. How and where they are established, the rules described above. The main objective of such a scheme - is showing the mounting devices and wiring. When you create a wiring diagram is important to think in advance where, how much and what will stand appliances.

The next step will be the creation of schemes wiring harness to the connection points on the circuit. At this point it is necessary to dwell. The reason for this type of wiring and connection. Just a few of these types - parallel, serial and mixed. Last most attractive due to economical use of materials and maximum efficiency. For ease of wiring all connection points are divided into several groups:

  • kitchen lighting, hallway and living rooms;
  • toilet and bathroom lighting;
  • electricity sockets living rooms and corridors;
  • kitchen electricity sockets;
  • power supply sockets for electric stoves.

The above example is only one of many options for lighting groups. The main thing that you need to understand - is that if you group a connection point, reducing the amount of materials used and the simplified scheme itself.

electricity consumer groups in the apartment

Important! To simplify laying wiring to sockets wires can be laid under the floor. Wires for lighting are installed inside the upper floor slabs. These two methods are well used if you do not want Stroebe walls. In the diagram, this entry is marked by dotted lines.

Also in the project wiring indicated calculation of the estimated current network and the materials used. The calculation is performed according to the formula:

I = P / U;

where P - total power used by all devices (W), U - the supply voltage (V).

For example, kettle 2 kW, 10 lamps of 60 W, 1 kW microwave oven, refrigerator 400 watts. Amperage 220 volts. As a result (2000+ (10h60) + 1000 + 400) / 220 = 16.5 amps.

In practice, the current in the network to modern apartments rarely exceeds 25 A. Based on this, and all materials are selected. First of all it concerns the section of the wiring. To facilitate the selection, the table below shows the main parameters of the wire and cable:

cable cross-section depending on the current strength

The table shows the maximum precision values, and as is often the current strength can vary, it would take a small margin for most wire or cable. Therefore, all the wiring in the house or apartment is recommended to perform the following materials:

Wires for wiring

  • VVG-wire 5 * 6 (five cores and section 6 mm2) is used in buildings with three-phase supply for connection with the main panel light shield;
  • VVG-2 * 6 wire (two wires and section 6 mm2) is used in homes with two-phase power to connect with the main panel light shield;
  • VVG wire-3 * 2.5 (three cores and 2.5 mm2) is used for most of the wiring from the lighting panel to junction boxes, and from them to the sockets;
  • VVG wire-3 * 1.5 (three strands and the cross section of 1.5 mm2) is used for the wiring from the distribution boxes to the points of illumination and switches;
  • VVG-3 * 4 wire (three strands and the cross section of 4 mm2) is used for electric.

power off machines

To know the exact length of the wires have to run a little bit with a tape measure around the house, and to the result add 3 - 4 meters in stock. All wires are connected to the shield of illumination, which is installed at the entrance. The panel mounted breakers. Usually this RCD 16 A and 20 A. The first is used for lighting and switches to the second outlet. To set individual appliance RCD 32 A, but if power is greater than the plate 7, kw, then put on the RCD 63 A.

Personal protective equipment for electrical wires

Now we need to calculate how much to sockets and distribution boxes. It's all quite simple. Just look at the diagram and make a simple calculation. In addition to the materials described above require different consumables, such as an insulating tape and PPE caps for connecting wires and pipes, cable ducts or ducts for electrical wiring, Enclosures.

wiring

In the works there is nothing daunting on electrical wiring. The main thing to adhere to the installation of safety rules and follow the instructions. All work can be done alone. From tool to perform the required mounting tester bolgarka punch or drill or screwdriver, pliers, and the pliers Phillips and flathead screwdriver. Do not be amiss to laser level. Since without it is quite difficult to make vertical and horizontal layout.

Important! Carrying out repair with replacement of wiring in an old house or apartment hidden wiring, you must first find and remove the old wires, if necessary. For these purposes the sensor wiring.

Marking and preparation of raceways

Marking a wiring

We start with the installation of markings. For this use the marker or pencil mark put on the wall, where the wire is to be laid. In this case, we follow the rules placing wires. The next step is to mark locations for the installation of lighting, sockets and switches and lighting panel.

Important! In new houses for panel lighting, a special niche. In this old guard simply hung on the wall.

Shtroblenie walls under wiring

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After graduating with a marking, or proceed to the installation of wiring open way, or to shtroblenie walls flush. Initially using the punch and a special nozzle crowns are cut holes for installing plugs, switches and junction boxes. For wires themselves are made Stroebe using grinder or perforator. In any case it will be a lot of dust and dirt. Grooves groove depth should be about 20 mm, and width to be such that in Stroebe freely placed all wires.

Wiring in the cavities overlap

As for the ceiling, then there are several options to address the issue with the placement and fixing wiring. First - if the ceiling is mounted or tension, the entire wiring simply secured to the soffit. The second - is a shallow cutting grooves for wiring. The third - the wiring is hidden in the ceiling slab. The first two options are very simple to implement. But the third will have to make some clarifications. The prefabricated houses are used overlapping with internal voids, make two holes and enough to reach inside the overlapping wires.

After graduating from shtroblenie, proceed to the final stage of preparation for the installation of wiring. Wires to make them into a room, you need to stretch through walls. So we have to use the punch to punch holes. Typically, these holes are made in the corner of the room. Also, make holes for the plant wires from the electrical panel to the shield of illumination. After finishing shtroblenie walls begin installation.

Installation of open wiring

Montzha open wiring

We begin with the installation with the installation of lighting panel. If special niche was created for him, then we put it back, but if not, just hang it on the wall. Inside Flap set RCD. Their number depends on the number of lighting groups. Assembled and ready to plug in panel looks like this: at the top of the terminal are zero, below the grounding between terminals and vending machines.

switchboard

Now we start wire inwardly VVG-5 * 6, or VVG-2 * 6. From the side of the electrical panel connection Electrical wiring carries, so now let's leave it without a connection. Inside the panel lighting introductory wire connected as follows: the blue wire attachable to zero, white the upper contact RCD and yellow with green stripe wire attachable to ground. Machines RCD interconnected in series at the top by means of jumper wires from white. Now go to the wiring harness open way.

Installation of cable channel to the open posting

Along the lines of the previously planned anchoring boxes or cable channels for wiring. Often with open wiring cable channels are trying to place themselves around the plinth or vice versa almost to the ceiling. . Ducts for wiring fixed with screws in increments of 50 cm The first and last hole in a box do at a distance of 5 - 10 cm from the edge. For this zasverlivaem holes in the wall with the gun, hammering into the dowel and fasten the cable channel with screws.

Another distinctive feature of the wirings are sockets, switches and distribution boxes. They all hung on the wall instead of to build into the inside. Therefore, the next step is to install them on the spot. It is enough to attach them to the wall, mark the place of the fixing Drill holes and fix them in place.

open wiring

Next, we proceed to the wiring harness. We start with laying the main highway and from the outlets to the shield of illumination. As already noted, using the wire VVG-3 * 2.5. For convenience, starting from the connection point to the side panel. At the end of the wire hang a label indicating that the wire and where it goes. Next, put the wires VVG-3 * 1.5 of switches and light fixtures to the junction box.

Compound wires in junction box

Inside the junction box wires are connected by Sizov or carefully isolate. Inside the panel lighting VVG-core wire 3 * 2.5 is connected as follows: a brown or red vein - phase, is connected to the bottom of RCD, blue - zero, attachable to the top neutral bus, yellow with green stripe - to a tire grounding below. With the help of "prozvanivatsya" tester all wires to avoid possible errors. If everything is OK, call an electrician and connected to the distribution box.

Installation of hidden wiring

Runs hidden wiring is simple enough. The essential difference from the open only way to hide the wire from view. The rest of the steps are practically identical. Initially set the plate lighting and automatic RCD, after which the plant and connect the lead-in cable from the electrical panel. Also, we leave it without being connected. This will make the electrician. Next, set the done inside niches distribution boxes and flush.

Installation flush

Now we go to the wiring harness. The first paving the main highway from the VVG-3 * 2.5 cable. If planned, then the wires to the sockets are laid in the floor. The wire VVG-3 * 2.5 factory in a pipe for electric wiring or special corrugation and paving its output to place the wire to an outlet. There place the wire inside Grooves and plants in its Escutcheon. The next step is installation of cables VVG-3 * 1.5 of switches and light points to the distribution boxes, where they join the main wire. All connections isolate SIZami or tape.

Checking tester hidden wiring

At the end of "prozvanivatsya" the entire network using a tester for possible errors and connect to the shield of illumination. Connection method similar to that described for open wiring. Upon completion of the close up Stroebe plastered and invite electrician to connect to the distribution box.

Laying of electricians in the house or apartment to an experienced master - it is easy enough. But for those who are versed in electrical engineering, you should take the help of experienced professionals from start to finish. This, of course, will cost money, but you can protect yourself from bugs that can cause a fire.