A stairway with his own hands

Stairway is easy to manufacture and is considered the best option for private homes. Constructing an engineering design, it is necessary to start from two main requirements - safety and convenience. With the construction of the stairs is important to strictly follow the rules of design, calculation and installation. To eliminate unwanted risks do not redo the work in the future, you must initially focus on existing standards and norms.

  1. Components and features stairway
  2. Requirements for stairway
  3. Construction stairway
  4. The choice of materials for the manufacture of a stairway
  5. A stairway with his hands: a phased manufacturing
    • Design and calculation ladders
    • Making stringers
    • Installation steps and handrails
  6. FLOATING: photo ideas different décors

Components and features stairway

An integral part of a two- or three-storey house is a staircase. The most popular are two types of structures: Vinnova and boosters. For the construction of a spiral staircase will need to carry out complicated calculations, since such a structure has a support member. Error calculating anticipated loads can cause the destruction of the entire structure. Therefore, many people choose a stairway, which is quite possible to build your own.

For a more accurate understanding of how to make a stairway, it is necessary to know its components. ladder construction includes the following elements:

  • bearing beams: stringer or stringers;
  • supporting columns;
  • step (tread);
  • substep;
  • frieze stage;
  • balusters (fencing);
  • railings (balustrades);
  • winders - instead of the site;
  • plinths.

We describe in detail every detail engineering design:

  1. Stringers - basic element ladder. Bearing beam that holds the entire structure. Stringers are made of wood, concrete or metal. Depending on the purpose, and the specific weight of the ladder unit, the design may have a single central kosour two - on each side, or three - side and an extra middle. Installation third kosoura be provided for heavy, bulky structures with high permeability.
  2. Bowstring performs the same function as the stringers. The staircase bowstring notches under the tread makes the inside of the beams.
  3. Steps consist of two parts: a substep and tread. Tread -. Horizontal surface, a width of about 30 cm and a length of the order of 90-150 cm tread length determines the width of the assembly. The vertical part of the stage - podstupenek, width 15-20 cm (height of the leg lift). Sometimes, in order to facilitate the design and decorative attractiveness ladder made without substep.
  4. Protections (balusters) required for stairs, consisting of more than 3 degrees. A number of the called balusters balustrade. Baluster define the style of the whole structure. The wealth of choice of textures, shapes and materials allows you to create exclusive products.
  5. Railings are fixed on the fence. The main requirements to the rail - the smoothness of the surface. It is this element of man rests his hand while moving the ladder. On the rail must not be rough, chipping and chipping.
  6. Platform desirable to equip if one passage disposed more than 10 degrees. The horizontal plane can be slightly relax. grounds are often used for turning the ladder to the other side.
  7. Winders replace a full-fledged site. This solution is optimal when there is insufficient space to accommodate the usual site. Stage tapered at one end and extended the other.

Important! Winders triangular shape are considered unsafe to walk on. They should be used with caution in the house, where there are children and the elderly.

Popularity stairway caused by a number of advantages:

  • ease of production - traditional ladder on 1-2 March will gather on their own;
  • ease of use - this type of design is universal, as is suitable for residential and public buildings; on the stairway convenient to move and lift heavy furniture and oversized cargo;
  • appeal - Cruise rise looks good in the interiors of different styles;
  • due to robust design ladder is capable of withstanding heavy loads, which is not true about alternative types of stairs, for example, screw;
  • using winders, you can perform rotations ladders at different angles, creating a complex serpentine structure.

Requirements for stairway

Away and SNIP specified standards, are required to perform in the construction of a stairway in apartment buildings. However, the most important standards in the manufacture of staircases, intended for private use.

  1. The width of a flight of stairs - no less than 80-100 cm.
  2. On the stairs, it is necessary to provide high-quality lighting, especially for a first / last stage.
  3. The height of the fence - 90 cm.
  4. Stairway must withstand a load of about 180-220 kg, and the fence - a minimum of 100 kg.
  5. The angle of inclination of the stairs, arranged in the accommodation, - no more than 38 °. For attic stairs admissible angle 63-74 °. Single stairway should have the same inclination angle, constant over the entire length.
  6. It is important that the staircase was made of fire-fighting materials. Wooden structures should be treated with special protective structures.

Construction stairway

ladder form is determined depending on the building size and purpose of the premises. Based upon the number of marches are distinguished: odnomarshevye ladder structure with two marches and mnogomarshevye model.

It is desirable that the number of steps in one march did not exceed ten - this requirement is due solely to ease of use. If the design includes the installation of more than ten steps, it is better to equip two flights with intermediate platform.

Council. If the staircase has a height of more than 3 meters, it is necessary to mount the ladder half-pace.

Certain varieties of mid-flight of stairs can be regarded as a cantilever and spinal. One of the steps the cantilever staircase is mounted directly to the wall, and the second - as if floating in the air.

Important! Stage cantilever structure must be attached to the main wall. For the manufacture of such ladders are used stronger materials, a thickness of 6 cm.

"Suspended" design saves space of the room and look very stylish, the only drawback of the cantilever stairway - price. The cost of such a model is much higher than in the traditional march ups.

Spinal construction consists of several cells connected by a special technology. Details sequentially embedded into each other. The main advantage - the possibility of building a stairway different forms.

The choice of materials for the manufacture of a stairway

In accordance with the manufacturing FLOATING pictures are divided into metal, wood, concrete and glass stairs.

Monolithic concrete stairs are installed in most apartment buildings, shopping centers, cinemas and other public facilities.

Concrete structures organically look in the multi-storey mansions made of concrete blocks, brick or gas-silicate panels. Besides concrete staircase is very cold and it is necessary to sheathe facing material (wood), and it is double work.

A particular strength different metal structures. Using metal components, you can create any composition that favorably emphasize the individuality of the room.

Metal ladders basis is of several types:

  • closed frame - applies to buildings, where it is planned to hide the frame by means of various materials;
  • open design with two stringers - rectangular frame and stringers the same shape as a ladder;
  • Open staircase with one stringers - in such an arrangement does not provide substep; at high loads, it is desirable to use additional consoles.

For the construction of a metal ladder will need an inverter apparatus and welding skills. Learn the basic nuances of the weld can be the case on its own, but to create a presentable and high-quality design that is not enough.

During the construction of stairs in a private house the metal is often combined with other materials: plastic, wood, brick or glass. For example, the frame structure is made of metal and wood stage.

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When you select should give preference to the metal steel. The main advantage of the material - resistance to corrosion. This design will serve at least 50 years. From the use of painted steel is better to refuse - its maximum service life of 5 years.

Durable and reliable design of brass, but they quickly lose their original appeal and darken. Anodized aluminum is resistant to rust, but the material is susceptible to mechanical damage.

Important! According to the requirements of fire safety in high-rise cottages must be mounted metal or concrete stairs to ensure the evacuation of residents in the event of ignition.

Wooden stairs are easier to self-install than metal. When planning the installation of a wooden structure, particular attention should be paid to the choice of material production.

Products made of coniferous trees quickly become loose and gradually begin to creak and crack. From such a timber are typically made compact collapsible ladder which can be stored in the loft.

For the construction of the permanent stairs is better to use solid wood. Subject to production technology wooden staircase will last more than 100 years. Best option: ash, beech, oak, yew, wenge and ash. Among medium-hard rock include: walnut, pear, black pine and birch. The "soft" wood: spruce, larch and pine. Unsuitable rocks for the construction of staircases: poplar and fir.

Despite some shortcomings, the pine is widely used to create engineering designs, including the stairway. This is due to the low cost, ease of handling, the possibility of toning and widespread.

By choosing pine, preference should be given high-quality material - without cracks, knots and resin lenses. The wood should be well dried. Making such a ladder would cost a bit more expensive, but will last much longer.

Important! Do not buy dried wood is bad, even if its price is competitive. The article of manufacture as drying material begins to buckle and deform, breaking strength, reliability and geometry ladder.

Popular in the manufacture of solid oak stairs - it is durable and has an attractive appearance. oak Cons: high cost and porous structure. The surface of products made of oak is difficult to sand and can not bring to a mirror finish.

With similar characteristics has oak beech. He is more affordable, but has high water absorbency. Color Beech - light pink.

Good runnability characterized ash. Some experts believe that one of the best material for the manufacture of ladders. The main advantages is clear: flexibility, ductility and high strength rock. Ash will be able to get a perfectly smooth product, since wood responds well to polishing.

Glass stairs in demand in the regeneration of the room, in the style of hi-tech. For the production is taken laminated or tempered glass. But such a durable material 100% does not remove the risk of a split with a strong impact. After several years of glass begins to turn yellow. Another shortcoming of the glass structure - the complexity of construction. Set a ladder on their own will not work.

A stairway with his hands: a phased manufacturing

Design and calculation ladders

Before carrying out practical work it is important to correctly design and calculate the ladder. This work should be carried out with extreme care, since any errors in design may entail difficulties in assembly.

It is necessary to design the main components of the design: the steps, stringers and handrails.

Steps are calculated according to the formula: 2A + B = 64 cm, where A variable - the width of the part, the variable B - step height. Bytes size typically varies between 14-17 cm.

Consider how to calculate the stairway:

  1. Measure the height of the alleged stairs.
  2. Calculate the number of steps of a flight of stairs. For this ladder height divided by the amount of B. If the total height of the staircase is equal to 240 cm and the step height 16 cm, the number of steps will be 15 (240/16).
  3. Calculation stages width - the parameter A. Knowing the number of steps (b) it is not difficult to do: 2A + 15 = 64, 2A = 49, A = 49/2 = 24.5 cm.

The second option the calculation of stairway - the use of tabular data.

In the design it is important to remember that each stage has a protrusion hanging over the substep. projection size must not be more than 3-4 cm, otherwise there is a risk of tripping.

Important! There is a definite pattern: the higher the podstupenek, the narrower the stage. That less, the width of the stage can not be less than the height. Optimally - 30 cm.

Do not forget the design and the distance of the stairs up to the ceiling and other objects placed on top. This value must be at least 190-200 cm.

To determine the size of the horizontal ladder must multiply the number of stages in their width. Here we must note that the first stage acts as the floor. If the construction height are obtained quite large, it is necessary to equip the intermediate pad. In this case, the number of stages in each staircases will be about 7-8.

If the project and design ideas imply a strictly defined number of stages, their height can be made a little less. Thanks to this solution will be able to place the pad.

Making stringers

To create a suitable kosoura pine boards, thickness 40 mm. Wood humidity should be between 7-13%.

The sequence of fabrication stringers:

  1. Prepare the mold, repeating steps bends.
  2. The workpiece via patterns cause marking. teeth line must be free of sharp corners.
  3. Hacksaw or jigsaw to saw electric prongs. The resulting preform can be used as a template vypilivaya remaining stringers.
  4. To ensure the durability and safety ladder is desirable to prepare in this way three or four kosoura.
  5. Install stringers in place, where accommodation ladder.
  6. Check that the ends of stringers rested on the first floor and the second floor base.
  7. Check all gashes flatness for the subsequent installation steps.

Installation steps and handrails

Steps can be fixed to the stringers by means of special wooden elements (grasshoppers) or directly. Before their installation it is necessary to prepare the desired number of risers and treads, given the size of the projections.

The first step is to establish better substep. For this purpose, you can use screws or nails. However, the compound is considered more reliable parts using fillies triangular shape. Filly fixed shkantami under which pre-cut grooves in kosour. For more details of strength "planted" on the glue and fasten with screws.

When all the stages can be set to start installation of handrails and balustrades, which are used for fixing screws and pins.

The final stage - varnishing stairs. This procedure will prevent the structure from harmful insects, mold and moisture.

FLOATING: photo ideas different décors

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