Heating private homes with their own hands from A to Z

Gone already are the days when the only way to heat a private house was a stove. It is because of the lack of full heating and hot-water, many do not want to live outside the city, moving into comfortable flats. But the benefits of civilization reached and country houses. Modern technologies and materials allow to equip the heating of private homes with their own hands, to no longer endure hardship. Now the comforts of a country house will be no worse than the city. There are several ways to make a heating system in a private house, which are different structural elements and energy. On them we will cover in this article.

  1. What might be a private home heating system
    • Water heating private houses
    • Steam heating private houses
    • Air heating private houses
    • Electric heating private houses
  2. Driving a private home heating system with liquid coolant
    • Water heating pipe system
    • Water heating pipe system
    • Manifold water heating system
  3. Installation of a private home heating system

What might be a private home heating system

The first heating system differ in the type of coolant, and which directly heats the room, giving up heat. Distinguish water systems, steam, air, electrical and fire. Recent implemented in fireplaces, furnaces and Russian crude. In areas where heating is realized such a way, the heat is distributed unevenly floor near the cold air near the source of heat (furnace), hot and cold air on the distance. In principle, a small house can be quite warm and the quality stove, but we will not focus on these systems, and talk about those who are able to provide a more uniform heating of the big house.

Water heating private houses

water heating system is a closed loop, which circulates the hot water. As the boiler heating element protrudes from it at home diverge tube radiators in each room through which hot water and gives off heat. Having warm water is again returned to the boiler where it is heated, and the cycle is repeated.

A gas heating boiler

To fit the boiler water system on any available fuel. The most common are gas-fired boilers, as they are economical. heating device in a private home with the help of natural gas is only possible if the house is brought natural gas pipeline. Another disadvantage is that gas-fired boilers require regular maintenance and control of the special services. However, the gas heating is in great demand.

solid fuel boiler

If negazifitsirovannyh area, you can use solid fuel boiler (Coal, wood, pallets). In this case the system will completely autonomous and independent of the supply of primary energy. But for the storage of solid fuels will have to be equipped with a comfortable and dry storage.

Oil boilers, e.g., diesel, may also be used for water heating. This method has several drawbacks: very expensive diesel fuel, heating turns out uneconomical need buried in the ground tank, that in spite of all precautions, a fire hazard for fuel.

electric boiler, connected to a central power supply, it will also perform well. But if you have already decided to use electricity as an energy source, it will be expedient to install electric radiators to directly convert electrical energy into heat energy without the mediation of the water.

Everything for a fully autonomous heating is possible to use alternative energy, solar and wind inverters, mini-hydroelectric power stations and more.

The boiler output is chosen depending on the area of ​​the house. Sample characteristics can be found in the table.

Table heating boiler capacities

The water heating system can be circulated as water and antifreeze. Also, the system may be additional elements for its adjustment. The expansion tank serves to collect excess liquid, thermostats needed to control the temperature before each radiator, circulating water pump for forced movement is not always used, as well as the automatic air vent, shutoff and safety valves.

Water heating private houses

If you are wondering how much heating private houses, then you can calculate it yourself. First we need to determine the type of energy source. We consider the case with gas boiler. So we need to buy a boiler, pipes, radiators for every room, expansion tank, valves, fittings, all the required accompanying materials. But before purchasing it all should make the scheme of heating private houses, which will be exactly the specified location of the boiler and radiators, pipe length, and more. Project work "will fly a lot of money", permits, approvals, plus and installation. As a result, spend in a private home heating will cost about 9,000 - 11,000 USD

The cost of equipment for the heating system will largely depend on the materials. For example, there are radiators cast iron, steel, aluminum, Stainless Steel. Cheapest cast iron, they are also the most difficult, and short-lived. Stainless most expensive, few can afford to install them around the house. Pipes for the laying of heating pipeline, too, are made of different materials: steel (Stainless steel, galvanized steel), copper, polymer (Metal and plastic, polypropylene, polyethylene). Considered the most reliable copper pipes, since they withstand high temperature fluctuations, and the connection is soldered with silver solder. Plastic pipes, though easy to install and are not afraid of corrosion, but have a significant disadvantage - are afraid of changes in temperature and lose their strength if they bend. Steel pipes have recently been used rarely, although stainless steel and galvanized are not afraid of corrosion, durable and firmly connected.

The cost of materials and labor for the installation of heating in a private house effect and the type of water heating system, which can be single-tube, double pipe and collector. This is what we describe below.

Water heating system has several disadvantages: a complicated and time-consuming installation, regular maintenance and inspection of the boiler system, but it is very popular among country residents compared with other systems.

Steam heating private houses

steam heating system is implemented according to the principle: the boiler heats the water under pressure to the boiling state, resulting steam via line goes radiators, where it gives up its heat, condenses back to water and returned back to the boiler. The air is squeezed out of the system with hot steam. According to the principle of the condensate back to the boiler are two types of systems: open (open) and closed (closed). In open systems there is a tank, which collects condensate and then enters the boiler. In closed condensate system automatically returns to the broad tube boiler.

Important! Steam heating is not used in private homes. "Steam" mistakenly called "water" heating. In fact, the boiler for steam heating is a huge machine, the size of a room, it is very difficult to operate, as well as dangerous. Such heating is only used in enterprises, where production needs required pairs. Even in this case, heat emitting elements are carefully isolated from human, since the steam temperature 115 ° C.

Air heating private houses

Air heating system can be equipped in the house only during the construction phase in the finished apartment building is impossible.

the system operating principle is as follows: heat source heats the air, which then rises through the air ducts in the room and is under the ceiling so as to displace the cold air trapped near a window or door. Cold air is forced into the ducts leading to the heat source. This happens circulation, which may be a gravitational or forced.

Gravity circulation occurs due to the temperature difference, when the amount of warm air is sufficiently large, it displaces towards cold air ducts. The disadvantage of this method lies in the fact that the open windows or doors circulation is disturbed.

For the forced circulation is used to improve the fan air pressure.

The figure shows heating private house with the help of air.

Air heating private houses

The heat source can burn natural gas, kerosene or diesel. Thus the natural gas can be either on line, and the balloon. The combustion products leave the chimney.

To freshen the air in the system is mixed into fresh air intake which can be done outside the premises.

The ducts may be made of metal, plastic or textile, and also have a circular or rectangular shape. According to the structure of the ducts are rigid and flexible. Adjacent to the outer walls or unheated rooms ducts must always be insulated. To properly calculate how must be placed air heating system at home, what should be the size of the duct, what is the topology of the network, consult a specialist. Construction of such a system for the two-storey house can cost 11,000 USD

Electric heating private houses

Heating homes with electricity can be achieved in several ways: using panel heaters, systems "warm floor", long-wave infrared heaters (Ceiling).

Electric heating boiler

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Heating homes with electricity can not be called economical. Sometimes even equipped with hot-water heating system and connect it to the boiler runs on electricity. This method has a major drawback: the big energy costs and heat loss. Therefore, the electric boiler advise installed as a spare, in addition to gas (provided that the gas pipe).

But if there is no other available source of energy, we have to use what we have. Then, more economical and expedient to use not the boiler and immediately Heaters.

Heating private homes with the help of panel heaters

To calculate the number of required devices, you should know the amount of space and the degree of thermal insulation. For example, for a 100 m2 home heating, with a ceiling height of 3 m, the volume of 300 m3 is obtained, if the room slaboizolirovannoe, its heating demand is 40 W / m3. Total, multiply the amount of space on the need to obtain 12,000 watts. Such a requirement can be satisfied by setting 4 convector 2.5 kW each convector 1 and - 2 kW. The cost of equipment is about 1300 - 1500 USD This is considerably less than the improvement of water heating with gas boiler, but it is much less cost-effective energy source at payment.


The disadvantage of using panel heaters is the uneven heating of the room: the floor near the cold and hot air accumulates near the ceiling. In order to uniformly heat the room, you can optionally set the "warm floor" system.

Driving a private home heating system with liquid coolant

Water heating system can be single-circuit or dual-circuit. Single-used for heating only, a dual heating and hot water for household purposes. In practice, in private homes often set two single-circuit system: one - especially for heating water, the second - for heating. It is convenient by the fact that the second boiler is not working in the non-heating season.

According to the principle of movement of water in the system distinguish between single-pipe, two-pipe and manifold system.

Water heating pipe system

One-pipe heating system

The pipe system water passes sequentially from one radiator to another. In each subsequent radiator coolant temperature is lower and lower. In the latter it may not be sufficient to heat the room. This system is almost impossible to adjust, so as to block access to a single radiator, block the access of water to all the others. Also, if a radiator is out of order, you have to completely turn off the system, play off the water, and only then change it to a new or repaired.

Water heating pipe system

Two-pipe heating system

Pipe system is capable of higher quality heat a house, since each radiator suitable two tubes: one - with hot water, through another - leaves ostyvshaya water. In this hot-water pipe is connected to all radiators simultaneously. If the front of every radiator valves set, you can disable any of the radiator system. In the last radiator which fits the pipe with the hot water, the temperature will be less than in the first, but the loss will be negligible in comparison with the one-pipe system.

Manifold water heating system

Collector heating system

Manifold system assumes that go from the collector pipe to each radiator separately: one - with hot water, according to another water cooled down is returned. This system allows you to adjust the temperature in any room and also easy to replace or repair any part of the system without switching off the heating. Manifold System - the most advanced. The only drawback: the installation of an additional collector cabinet and a large flow pipe.

Installation of a private home heating system

First of all you should decide what kind of heating system is best done in a particular house. The most optimal solution would be to install the system, the energy carrier for which is more accessible and cost effective, economical heating private home for many is very important. For example, if the house supplied with gas, it is possible to install a water heating system with two boilers: a - the gas (main), the second - electric (spare) or solid fuel, so that in case of force majeure be completely non-volatile.

In the next step should be to contact the project office, which will make the appropriate calculations, the design documentation and drawings of a private home heating. Only then can acquire the necessary equipment and materials.

Boiler room in a private house

The first thing installed heating boiler. For any boilers, where the combustion products are, except electrical, must equip a boiler. This is a separate room, or a room in the basement, which made good ventilation. The boiler is installed at a distance from the walls to allow easy access. The floor and walls around the boiler is lined with refractory material. From the boiler to the street output chimney.

Manifold cabinet - Installation

Further installation of heating in a private home is to install a circulating pump (if required), the distribution manifold (if equipped system), measuring and control devices near the boiler.

Laying of pipes for heating in a private house

Only then lead piping from the boiler to the radiators line installation places. To hold the pipe through walls, will have to make holes in them that after the stretch of the pipe, it is necessary to cover cement mortar. A compound pipe produced from a material based on their manufacturing.

Connecting radiators

At least mounted radiators. They are placed on the brackets is obligatory under the window opening. If the heat sink size is not sufficient to close the opening, install two radiator or build section, if possible. The distance from the floor should be 10 - 12 cm, from the wall 2 - 5 cm and from the sill to the radiator - 10 cm. At the inlet and outlet of the radiator set stop and control accessories and temperature sensors to be able to regulate the temperature and to block the movement of water.

After all the design elements made crimping system. The first launch of the boiler is only possible in the presence of a gas organization.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the heating system is better to choose based on two factors: the availability and low cost energy source and the autonomy of the system in case of force majeure. Installing the heating system in a private home - it is so important and complex that it is not recommended to carry out on their own. At least the most important - the calculations, schemes and projects must meet the professionals. And in order to save, you can try to perform the installation of elements of the system on their own, but under the strict guidance of a master.

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